June 5, 2023
Er,Yb glass

(1) What is an Er glass?

The glass doped with Er as well as ytterbium ions is Er glass; Glasses doped with erbium, ytterbium, and also chromium ions are likewise erbium glasses; the dual bonded crystal of erbium glass, as well as white glass, is additionally erbium glass. The glass substrate concerned is not common glass but phosphate glass. This paper mainly presents Er, Yb doped glass. Er3+, Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glass (Er, Yb: phosphate glass) is a popular and generally made use of the energetic tool for lasers generating in the “eye-safe” scary collection of 1,5-1,6 ┬Ám.

(2) What is phosphate glass?

Phosphate glass is a glass material that mainly has phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) as well as usually also consists of other chemical parts. It can be utilized as a laser gain medium in bulk and fibre. Its primary advantage is its high compatibility with rare-earth ions (see rare-earth-doped gain media), such as Erbium (Er3+), ytterbium (Yb3+), and also neodymium (Nd3+) ions. To put it simply, the phosphate glass species can be doped with a high concentration of laser-active rare earth ions without creating damaging results such as clustering, which will certainly produce a quenching effect and also impact the efficiency of the laser. The doping focus in phosphate erbium-doped fibre is a lot greater than that in quartz fibre, and it can enhance by numerous percentage points. The high doping concentration of phosphate makes it possible for short fibre lasers and amplifiers, which are not the only advantages of the glass however additionally include:
  • The brief fibre laser resonator can acquire a big complimentary spectrum array, making it less complicated to accomplish single-frequency procedures.
  • Dispersed feedback lasers are brief, whereas extremely drugged phosphate fibres enable extra reliable pump absorption.
  • Ultrashort pulsed fibre lasers are less vulnerable to nonlinear results if they utilize much shorter fibres.

(3) What’s the system of erbium glass?

Phosphate glass incorporates a lengthy lifetime (~ 8 ms) of 4I13/2 Er3+ leading laser level with a reduced (2-3 ms) lifetime of 4I11/2 Er3+ level that remains to remain in vibration with Yb3+ 2F5/2 fired up state. Quick non-radiative multi-phonon entertainment from 4I11/2 to 4I13/2 level significantly reduces the back-energy transfer and also up-conversion losses as a result of the interaction between Yb3+ as well as Er3+ ions, delighted at the 2F5/2 together with the 4I11/2 levels, respectively. Basically continuously, erbium-ytterbium-doped phosphate glass is pumped with wavelengths around the 975-nm absorption elevation of Yb3+ ions. That results in the excitation of the ytterbium ions. Afterwards, Yb ions may move the excitation power to border erbium ions. After an efficient power transfer, one first has an Er3+ ion in the 4I11/2 state (far more specifically, a Stark level manifold), which has comparable excitation energy as the Yb3+ ions. From that state, the ions normally undertake a quick non-radiative change to the state 4I13/2, regularly used as the top laser level. Such non-radiative adjustments happen based upon multi-phonon discharge, provided that the phonon power of the item is high and adequate (which holds for silica fibres, for example).

(4) Application of Er, Yb: glass in Erbium glass laser

Er, glass is also an extraordinary product for upconversion luminescence. Laser obtained the environmentally friendly as well as red laser from erbium-doped glass fibre, and people additionally observed violet upconversion light. The upconversion luminescence of Er: phosphate glass thrilled by Nd: YAG was explored.


Er, glass is a pure three-level laser device. As a result of this, it requires pumping almost all the energetic glass components. The non-pumped locations provide laser light absorption losses. In the case of the standard pole setup, the non-pumped rod needs to be as brief as possible. The optical excitation of the Yb, Er glasses (particularly chromium-free ones) occurs mainly using Yb ions. The only Yb absorption band lies in the near-infrared spectral array (900– 1000 nm). Water discontinuation in this spectral variety is 1 cm-1. Because of this, Er glass can drastically lower the water-cooled laser efficiency as a result of pump light absorption in the water layer bordering the flashlamp and the laser pole. READ MORE

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