Er: YAG laser is a brand-new sort of laser in the 1980s. When the doping focus is high, the laser can acquire an outcome of 2.94 μm. Because the laser has a wavelength of 2.94 um, right at the absorption peak of water, it can be strongly soaked up by water particles. The mass fraction of water in biological cells is usually more than 70 per cent. For that reason, a 2.94 μm laser is an optimal option for laser biology applications.
Using this band of laser can likewise prevent the devastation of various other molecular bonds in the cell and does not have big thermal damage like carbon dioxide laser; In addition, the passing through the deepness of erbium laser in biological cells is extremely shallow, and its mechanical and thermal damages to the body are extremely tiny. Therefore, the application as well as the growth of Er: YAG laser have been paid much attention in clinical circles at home and also abroad in the last few years.
Er: YAG crystal
The laser device of Er: YAG is relatively complicated yet can recognize certain problems due to numerous power transfers with 2.94 μm laser output. Its macro features are small one-way gain, high threshold, and also difficulty attaining continuous output; Nevertheless, as a result of the high doping focus, it is challenging to produce saturation so that it can get the laser pulse with big energy.
Er3+: YAG crystal belongs to the cubic crystal system, an encouraging solid laser material in the mid-infrared band, which can output laser of 3 wavelengths at space temperature: 1.64 μm, 1.78 μm as well as 2.94 μm, amongst which 1.64 μm and also 1.78 μm remain in the safe band of human eyes, 2.94 μm is in the hydroxyl absorption peak and also can be highly soaked up by organic cells, so it has an excellent application possibility in laser medicine, laser interaction, laser range dimension, etc application
The output wavelength of Er: YAG laser is 2.94 μm, which is exactly constant with the optimal of the water absorption spectrum, as well as the absorption coefficient is 13000cm-1, which is the highest among existing medical lasers. It is a kind of laser conveniently absorbed by water molecules and can accomplish a great result with tiny energy.
The optical penetration depth representing the absorption coefficient is 1μm; compared to other medical lasers, the infiltration depth is extremely superficial. This advantage is matchless to various other wavelengths and can be used to do the accurate cutting and also soft cell excision surgery. As a result, it is suitable for accurate medical areas such as ophthalmology and also capillary.
Er: YAG laser in plastic surgery, bone as well as tooth cutting as well as other applications have actually attracted much focus.
In addition, Er: YAG laser is a really risk-free and also sensible laser resource for medical use because the damage to water-bearing tissue is mechanical damage triggered by water evaporation, which does not leave burn scars, nor does it have the prospective threat of gene mutation caused by damage to cell DNA comparable to the excimer laser.
Recently, the application of erbium-doped YAG laser in the clinical field has been paid increasingly more focus. With the maturation of Q-switching innovation, the difficulty of Q-switching of Er: YAG laser has been overcome, and the regulated 2.94 μm Er: YAG laser, the pulse width is greatly reduced, the peak power is likewise raised, which further reduces the mechanical damage to the irradiated object surface, and the thermal damage is almost no. The side of the pulse trauma point is smooth, which is really suitable for various precision clinical fields.
Amongst all types of wavelength lasers, Er: YAG laser in the mid-infrared band has a wavelength of 2940nm, which occurs to be near the top of the water absorption contour and also the 2nd peak of the hydroxyapatite absorption curve. It is simple to be taken in by water and hydroxyapatite, as well as specifically easy to be absorbed by water to produce high energy.
Consequently, it can act upon soft as well as difficult tissues with different water contents to create cutting, ablating as well as grinding effects and eliminate all types of microorganisms in the tissues at the same time.
For that reason, it is a multi-functional laser extensively utilized in different medical subspecialties of the oral cavity. Furthermore, Er: YAG laser has the shallowest cells infiltration deepness, just 2μm in soft cells, 5μm in enamel as well as 7μm in dentin, which has the advantages of precise therapy and also marginal tissue damage in clinical application.
At the same time, the water cooling style makes the temperature rise brought on by Er: YAG laser irradiation of soft and also hard tissue surface no greater than 5 ℃, nearly no thermal damage, so the cell’s response after therapy is slight, fast healing, really suitable for dental minimally intrusive therapy.
The 2.94 μm laser focus engages with water-saturated organic cells. It is equivalent to rapid heating of a finite quantity in which the stress increases as well as material (such as blood) spurts of the laceration without thickening, a bent some surgical procedures. But it was this quality that resulted in the development of the laser blood sampler. The impact is excellent. The discomfort is smaller sized than in acupuncture blood collection. The wound area is smaller sized, the recovery is fast, no infection.